Stray Memories of Strathdon

by Charles Christie (1938)

Stray Memories of Strathdon by Charles Christie (1938)
STRATHDON (Gaelic, Dhomhain¹), or Invernoughty as it was formerly called, is, with the exception
of Crathie and Braemar, the west-most parish in Aberdeenshire. It extends roughly to fourteen miles
long by six miles wide and has an area of 53,802 acres. It adjoins the parishes of Logie-Coldstone, Towie,
Glenbuchat, and Glenmuick and Glengairn in Aberdeenshire, and Kirkmichael in Banffshire. Incorporated with it is the quoad sacra parish of Corgarff.
By those who are not intimately acquainted with the district and merely hear it described as ” warld’s end” or ‘ the back o’ beyont,” it is talked of as ” the wilds of Strathdon.”
Admittedly it is a stormy district and dificult of access during severe wintry weather but no finer countryside, so rich with nature’s gifts, can be found. Heather hills and fertile lands, brawling burns tumbling t○ the sea, extensive plantations of fir and larch, side glens stretching to north and south dotted with blackfaced sheep, the eerie and haunting call of the whaup² and the shrill whistle of the oyster-catcher or sea pyot, that sense of freedom and liberty which uplifts and causes the wayfarer to sing with joy, that goodness which pervades all things and irresistibly draws from human breasts the thought that
earth’s beauties are nearer to us than we have hitherto perceived, all combine to satisfy and prove to us that another and greater Power is everywhere present. And,
¹ I have not seen this variant used before (domhain in Gaelic means ‘deep’). Standard today would be ‘Srath Deathain’
² Old Scottish word for curlew

as we traverse those silent glens in their remoter corners, we are tempted to think of those long since departed who found contentment on some lone hillside in their lowly sheilings, the foundations of which still remain to remind us that in their occupants’ primitive ways happiness was theirs, even more perhaps than it is ours to-day, for it was uncontaminated and undefiled, fresh as the air they breathed, and pure as the streams that issue from a green well-eye on a mountain top. None who have been bred or have lived in the parish can ever think of it with anything but recollections of the most happy and agreeable character and of the enjoyment that reigned in barn or in hall. Snowfalls of yesterday are soon forgotten in the brilliant sunshine of today, and the clear blue skies and nipping air that send the blood pulsating through the veins are more than recompense for the discomforts that may occasionally have to be suffered.

The main strath may not impress the stranger because of its comparative narrowness, and the higher
hills are not viewed until the west-end of the parish is reached, but the glens stretching laterally north and south run for miles into the hills, where their headwaters lie in Glennoughty, Glenernan, Glen Deskrie
Glenconry, and Glencarvie. In such surroundings exhilaration dispels depression and the stranger feels
that it is good to live
Fairest of all the glens in Strathdon is Glenernan, but it is saddened by the melancholy tragedy of ” The
Lass o’ the Lecht,” who perished in a winter’s gale in February 1860. The spot where she sank down to die
at the side of the burn of Ernan near its junction with
the burn of Fleuchats, is marked by a small, roughly-built cairn. Only one who has experienced the
appalling loneliness of a hill top in the midst of a swirling snowstorm or an impenetrable mist can sense the feeling of sickening and depressing despair which overtakes the traveller when he realises that he is lost, that there is no help available, that he is impotent and can do nothing, and that he must wait with resignation until the storm subsides and Providence releases him from his terrifying adventure. Such must have been the fate of the Lass o’ the Lecht who, with all tracks and landscapes obliterated owing to the severity and closeness of the storm, had crept onwards with no idea of direction until the early darkness fell, only to find that the burn was in spate and could not be crossed. The following ballad was written at the time :-
Ye Cromdale people, both young and old,
Pray hear the tale I now unfold,
It will make your very blood run cold
To think upon that morning.
A blooming lass in her eighteenth year,
Across the Lecht her course did steer,
The way was rough and wild and drear
Upon that winter’s morning.
Soon the storm came down with fearful force,
It beat her sore without remorse,
And in blinding drift she lost her course On Ernan’s hills that morning
Beyond the reach of human cry,
No earthly help nor shelter nigh,
She fell exhausted down to die
By Ernan’s banks that morning.
Her master soon did anxious grow,
He raised the country high and low,
And to the hills at once did go
Five hundred men next morning.
Hardy lads from Corgarff, Stradown,
Fair Avon’s sides and eke Glen Brown,
Upon the Lecht assembled round
To seek for the corpse that morning.
Glenlivet and Glenconglass, too,
Turned out in number not a few,
To search the mountain passes through
Her corpse to find that morning.
Chapelton lads did not neglect,
Through drift and snow to face the Lecht,
And each and all won great respect
In the search for the corpse that morning.
The Tomintoul men deserve great praise,
They bravely toiled the lost to trace,
And sorrowing friends for many days
Will recount their deeds that morning.
The Reverend Glennie, a priest of fame,
God bless for aye his honoured name,
Refused to rest or stay at hame,
But sped to the hills that morning.
Farquharson of Invercauld, I trow,
And Forbes, the honoured laird of Newe
Did bed and board to all bestow
Who sought her corpse that morning.
Afar and near the searchers went,
With two blood-hounds from Invercauld sent,
But all in vain, though keen of scent,
They failed in their quest that morning.
From each hillside the smile of May
Had chased the winter’s snow away,
When there exposed the body lay
Till the Resurrection morning.
May we who hear this tale to-day
Take heed to ever watch and pray,
Lest unprepared we’re called away
To meet our doom some morning.
Margaret Cruickshank belonged to Speyside. She was 19 years old, and her body, found by a shepherd, was interred in Corgarff cemetery.
The River Don flows through the parish from west to east and greatly increases in volume, collecting tribute as it goes from numerous small streams which, during time of spate, become turbulent and uncon-trollable and overflow the lower-lying haughs and land. The infant Don emerges from a heather bank at an altitude of 2050 feet above sea level on the west shoulder of Cairn Culchavie, near the Banffshire boundary, in the deer forest of Inchrory, which was purchased in 1934 by Colonel Oliver Haig from the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. At its emergence it is an insignificant trickle of water which gives no indication of the proportions to which it will ultimately attain. It spreads
over mossy ground, and at a short distance from its source it goes underground for a few hundred yards. Then it again comes to the surface, running through Corrie Don in a well-defined track known as Allt an Mhicheil. In its course the burn veers towards the west and as it reaches the low haugh land at Lagganauld it runs to within fifteen or twenty yards of the Banffshire County march. The stream bears different names until it has run for nearly nine miles, when for the first time it is designated the River Don on the Ordnance Survey plans. Between its source and the Bridge of Luib it is fed by the Allt Tuileach, Allt Clach Meann, Allt Craig Mheann, Allt an Aighean, Allt Reppachie, Allt Bhean-naich, Allt Dunain, Burn of Loinherry, the Burn of the Cock, and the Milltown Burn.
It may not be amiss if the altitudes of the principal places and hills within the parish are stated, and it may surprise some to learn that there is arable land being cultivated 1480 feet above sea level, while there were larch trees, and trees of large dimensions, growing until a few years ago at 1500 feet. The altitudes are:-
Castle Newe                                                                            889
Tornashean (Poldhullie Toll)                                           1001
Candacraig House                                                                1049
Edinglassie House (Gate Lodges)                                  1073
Inverernan House                                                                1040 approx.
Skellater House                                                                    1130 approx.
Cockbridge Hotel                                                                1344
Allargue House                                                                    1435 approx.
Delnadamph Lodge                                                          1417
The Well of DonDelnadamph Lodge
Highest cultivated land                          1480
Breagach                                                      1825
Mullochdhu                                                2129
Cairn Bhacain                                            2442
Cairnmore                                                   2636
Brown Cow Hill                                        2721
Much of the land of Strathdon was held for centuries by Forbeses – Forbeses of Newe, Bellabeg, and Inverernan, Forbeses of Skellater, and Forbeses of Auchernach, Forbeses of Ledmacoy, and Forbeses of Cummerton, Forbeses of Culquharry, and Forbeses of Culquhonnie. But time works many changes, and with the exception of the small property of Aldahuie on Nochtyside and the house known as Ben Newe, which is occupied by the widow of Sir Charles Stewart Forbes, Baronet, of Newe, there are now no Forbeses as owners of estates, which until 1900 or thereby extended to many thousands of acres. Delnadamph Lodge at the head of the strath is attached to the moor of that name and originally formed part of the estate of Skellater. In 1815 Delnadamph had only a few buildings on it and had been occupied as a small croft. According to tradition there was also a Lodge at Muir Veannach to the west of Delnadamph built by a member of the Craigievar family, but, if there were, no traces of it can now be seen. The Duiver Hut stood at the junction of the Muir Veannach Burn and the Duiver Burn. Veannach croft was not so far up the glen as the Duiver Hut. ”Founds of buildings, which had afforded scanty accommodation, are still visible at Muir Veannach and the Duiver.
Standing high above the Burn of the Cock, on the estate of Delnadamph, is that gaunt old barracks, the Castle of Corgarff.  It was originally erected as a hunting seat by the Earl of Mar and was twice burned down. It ultimately was formed into a barracks for the suppression of the Highlanders. The castle was
besieged in 1746 by Lord Ancrum, and the Highland rebels who had taken possession of it were put to flight. The castle was never forfeited after the Rising of 1745 and remained the property of George Forbes of Skellater. Several members of Forbes families joined Prince Charlie’s Army.
George Forbes of Skellater was the eldest son of George Forbes 4th of Skellater and Isabel Gordon of Blelack, and held a Lieut.-Colonel’s commission in the Jacobite Army. He was attended by a half-witted man, who acted as his henchman. At Culloden, during the  early stages of the battle, this follower was holding George Forbes’s pony by the bridle, the laird himself standing close by. Suddenly a cannon shot dashed the pony’s head to pieces. Thinking nothing of himself, but only of the loss of his master, the faithful servant exclaimed indignantly, “See, laird, what they have done to your powny!” After Culloden George Forbes concealed himself in a birch wood on the hill of Delhandy on the south side of the Don in view of Skellater House. On one occasion he had a bad fright. A party of soldiers commanded by Lord Ancrum came over Lonach Hill and marched down upon Skellater House. George Forbes watched anxiously from his hiding-place, expecting to see his house in flames and his family driven out. Christian Forbes advanced to
Skellater HouseAuchernach House
meet the soldiers, leading her children and carrying in her hand the keys of the house, which she presented to the commander in token of submission. Lord Ancrum bowed courteously to the lady, returned her the keys, and requested her to go back with her children to the house. It must have been an anxious time for George Forbes as he watched these proceedings. Lord Ancrum withdrew his men and marched up the strath to lay siege to Corgarff Castle, which also belonged to Forbes and was at that time still held by a party of the rebels. No proceedings of any kind were taken by the Government against the family of Skellater and the estate escaped confiscation. George Forbes died at Boulogne in October, 1767, and his wife in January, 1784, at Delhandy. The motto of the Skellater Forbeses was – “Solus inter plurimos¹.”
Charles Forbes of Auchernach was appointed barrack-master of Corgarff Castle. Situated on Nochtyside, Auchernach was acquired in 1924 by Mr. George F. Rose, who had been engaged in business in India.
Another of the oldest families in the parish was the Andersons of Candacraig. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the whole of the lands in Strathdon were comprehended in the ” great lordship of
Kildrummy,” which was described as of “very great extent near to 30 miles in length and, in several places, many miles broad. The country in general is very mountainous and the towns or corn grounds are, generally speaking, upon the lower part of the hills on each side of the River Don and of the rivulets running from the hills on both sides into that river, each of these burns forming a small glen or strath, the interjected
¹ Solus inter Plurimos‘ translates as ‘Alone amongst many’
ground between the corn lands and hained grass in the lower part of these glens being the grazings and pasturages for the cattle of the inhabitants of the corn grounds generally possessed by them in common, further than as each town or farm may have, and, for the most part, has its particular sheilings, the grass of which in the summer time they preserve for the pasture of their milk cows.” That Lordship belonged to Lord Elphinstone, but was purchased from him by the Earl of Mar and included in the Earldom of Mar. Lord Elphinstone feued out and gave in wadset¹ parcels of land from his Lordship of Kildrummy, so that a host of small proprietors or wadsetters sprang up, and this practice was continued by the Earl of Mar, who retained in his own hands the lands of Kildrummy properly so called until the year 1715, when his estates were forfeited and were purchased from the Commissioners of the forfeited estates by Lords Dun and Grange.
By charter dated 7th May, 1620, Lord Elphinstone, with consent of Alexander Lord Kildrummy, his son, conveyed to Alexander, alias Alistair, Anderson in Candacraig, “the town and lands of Finnilost, Drum-nalyne, Tomachlewn and Faichla.” It would appear, therefore, that even at this early date there were Andersons” in Candacraig.” He was succeeded by his eldest son, John, who appears, however, to have been proprietor for a very short time. In 1632 the Earl of Mar, with consent of John Lord Erskine, his son, conveyed by charter to Duncan Anderson (who was the second son of the said Alexander, alias Alistair, Anderson) the “town and lands of Candacraig, Toman-taple, Tomachon, Feachla, and the croft of Craig.”
¹ To give or pledge in security, specif. in Sc. Law, to mortgage (land or other heritable property) by conveying it to a creditor who then undertook to reconvey it on repayment of the price, meanwhile drawing the rents as interest on the money lent, to sell land with a conditional right of redemption (Sc. 1808 Jam.). Now only hist. (per DSL – Dictionaries of the Scots Language – Dictionars o the Scots Leid)
By contract entered into between John Earl of Mar and John Lord Erskine, his son, there were also disponed to Duncan Anderson in 1642 the town and lands of Belnagauld, Meikle Glencarvie, Lochans, Rinstroin, and half of Lynmore in Glencarvie. Until 1684 the Andersons were by virtue of these charters in the position of wadsetters, but in that year they purchased from the Earl of Mar the reversion of all the ground they then possessed, and a disposition of these whole lands was granted by Charles Earl of Mar in favour of Duncan Anderson, son of Arthur Anderson and grand-son of the former Duncan.
The glen of Glencarvie in the 17th and 18th centuries embraced two separate estates or feus, the one comprising the lands above described belonging to the Andersons, and the other comprising the greater part of the land on the west side of the burn of Carvie and between it and Inverernan belonging to the Forbeses, who were also wadsetters.
 The Earl of Mar granted a charter dated 21st June, 1622, of the lands of Ledmacoy, Glencarvie, and others in favour of Arthur Forbes, but the property or part of it seemed to have changed hands, for in 1684 Charles Earl of Mar granted a charter of the lands of Smithston of Glencarvie in favour of William Anderson. It is difficult to trace the relationship between this William Anderson and the Andersons who held the opposite side of the Carvie, but it may be that he, like Duncan the second, was a son of Arthur Anderson, who may have given the lands on the east side of the burn to his son Duncan and the lands on the west side to William. At any rate, the charters by Charles Earl of Mar in favour of Duncan and William
were both granted in 1684, which lends some support to this supposition.
Agnes Anderson, daughter of William Anderson, conveyed Smithston of Glencarvie to Harry Forbes in 1707, and the lands accordingly reverted to the Forbeses. John Forbes, who designated himself as of Glencarvie,” succeeded his father, the said Harry Forbes, and in 1764 he sold the lands to Captain Forbes of Newe, who was a relative. At this latter date Candacraig and the east side of Carvie were in the possession of Charles Anderson, who was born in 1711. The genealogy of the family is very confusing owing to the similarity of christian names which had been maintained through several generations, but so far as can be traced, Duncan Anderson, who had succeeded his elder brother John, the son of Alexander or Alistair, had a son called Arthur. This Arthur had a son Duncan to whom was granted the principal disposition in 1684, and Duncan (who died in 1715) had a son also of the name of Arthur, who was the father of Charles. Charles’s father and great-grandfather both, therefore, had the name of Arthur, while his grandfather and great-great-grandfather both bore the christian name of Duncan. Charles’s father died in 1716 (only a year after his own father), leaving Charles in minority, and his affairs were managed by an uncle, John Anderson, who lived at Tomachlewn and acted as his tutor. When Charles was born in 1711 the family were in poor circumstances and had even been compelled to borrow from one of their own tenants, Alexander or Alistair Wattie in Finnylost, whose grandson, James Wattie in Mill of Newe, raised an action against Charles Anderson in 1771 for payment
of the debt incurred by his grandfather in the beginning of the century. So severe were the straits in which the family was placed that it is related that Duncan Wattie (the father of the petitioner in the action) “being conscious that the bond was due was determined not to discharge it and resisted all the endeavours of the defender (Charles Anderson) for that purpose, who sometimes flattered and sometimes threatened him, and on one particular occasion beat and abused him very severely because he refused to grant a discharge.”
Charles Anderson died on 16th March, 1776, aged 65, but before his death he erected a tablet in the Parish Church of Strathdon “in memory of his predecessors the Andersons of Kandocraig, interred here for seven generations past.” The genealogy, so far as it can be pieced together, only extends to five generations, and a mistake may have been made in the inscripton on the tablet, because the most exhaustive search only shows five previous generations of this family, although it is true that Charles himself would have been the seventh laird. Charles Anderson was succeeded by Alexander Anderson, his son, who, having purchased from Captain Forbes of Newe in 1776 the land on the west side of the burn of Carvie, entailed the lands of Candacraig and Glencarvie in 1811. He died on 13th March, 1817. Major John Anderson, the son of Alexander Anderson, was the next proprietor, and he died on 24th December, 1835. He was a Deputy-Lieutenant for Aberdeenshire. His wife was an illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Gordon. He left no issue and was succeeded by his brother, Dr. Robert Anderson, who suddenly expired in the fields of Finnylost while out shooting. The

Doctor was unmarried. The estate then passed to the female line of the family and Alexander, who was the son of the eldest sister of the Major and the Doctor, became proprietor. He was resident for many years at Huntingdon, Lower Canada. After having disentailed the lands of Candacraig, he and his son, Alexander Anderson, Junior, disposed of them to Sir Charles Forbes in 1866.

The badge of the Andersons was a fir tree and their motto, “Stand Sure.”
The estate of Candacraig, with a large portion of what originally formed the estate of Skellater on the south side of the River Don, of which the late Mr. A. F. Wallace, East India merchant, had become shooting lessee in 1890, was acquired by him in 1900, and has since been very materially added to by his son, Mr. F. L. Wallace, whose son, Mr. Alexander Wallace, is now owner of this magnificent property. It embraces Glenconrie or the portion of Inverernan lying on the south side of the River Don. Inverernan House was erected in 1764 and was wholly reconstructed by Mr. F. L. Wallace in 1935. Candacraig has been improved and beautified beyond measure by Mr. F. L. Wallace.
Out of his purchases from Sir C. S. Forbes, Mr. A. F. Wallace carved another estate, Tornashean (Torr-na-Sithean), which he made over to his only daughter, the Hon. Mrs. Thesiger, in 1918, Tornashean Lodge having been built by Mr. A. F. Wallace in 1908.
The Wallaces’ motto is “Sperandum Est.”
Edinglassie belonged at one time to an Edinburgh W.S., Mr. Alexander Stewart, who died in 1787. His wife was Margaret Cranston whose name was trans-
mitted to a small croft situated near the head of the Moinewhitt burn, but is not now in existence. Peter, his son, sold the property to John Houston, Governor of one of the East Indian Islands, who parted with it to John Forbes, who conveyed it to his nephew, the first Baronet of Newe. A son of William Forbes of Skellater received Inverernan as his patrimony in 1680. The present house of Edinglassie was erected in 1726 by George Stratton, architect, who had probably also designed Skellater House, but Edinglassie has since been enlarged on several occasions. Skellater House, which stands to-day on the Edinglassie estate, had been erected in 1727 by Lauchlan Forbes, as appears from the date carved on a spurstone of the house. A panel But it is over the front door bears the year 1770. evident that the slab had been let into the wall at a later date and had not been built with the original wall. The tomb of the Stewarts of Edinglassie is in the north-east corner of the old Churchyard of Strathdon.
Edinglassie was bought in 1908 by the late Right Hon. H. J. Tennant, P.C., formerly M.P. for Berwick-shire and Secretary for Scotland in the short-lived Asquith Government of 1916. He subsequently purchased that part of the Inverernan estate north of the River Don, and a few years later sold Inverernan House and adjoining land to Mr. F. L. Wallace. Mr. Tennant died in 1935 at Great Maytham, Kent, and his remains were buried in the little cemetery at Corgarff a grave of his own selection, where one can hear the muircocks calling and the Don gurgling slowly on its
way to the sea.
designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.
The Tennant motto is
Deus Dabit Vela.” Until 1892, when the Boundary Commissioners disjoined parts of the parish and added them to others, certain portions of the parish of Tarland and Migvie were sandwiched into Strathdon, but in that year Strathdon was enlarged by having these portions of Tarland and Migvie added to it, while one portion of Strathdon lying to the west side of the burn of Kindie was added to Towie, and a portion of Towie was trans-ferred to Tarland and Migvie. These alterations on the boundaries did not affect ecclesiastical rights, which were specially reserved, and to-day some of the proprietors in Strathdon are still paying stipend to the minister of Tarland, although the lairds of Strathdon never exercise the right of sitting in their pews in the Church of Tarland on a Sunday. How it ever happened that there were these detached portions of parishes miles away from what might be called the parent stem is not definitely known. It is conjectured that during the days of hill sheilings and the annual migration of sheep from the low ground to the glens, when commonty grazings prevailed, sovereignty was claimed by the tenants in the glens where they had planted their flag and built their rough sheilings. These promiscuous rights thus claimed would have become established and recognised until the commonties themselves came by law to be divided up amongst the lairds who could prove that from time immemorial their tenants’ flocks had pastured regularly without interruption on these distant hills, where the summer had been spent in peace and quietness and with a freedom from restlessness which is now unknown. There were the Greenhill Commonty, the
Glennochty Commonty, the Glenernan Commonty, the Morven Commonty, and the Bunzeach Commonty, all of which, as commonties with various lairds interested in them, have now disappeared, some by private arrangement and some by reason of legal procedure. These commonties occupied large tracts or areas of ground, but it did not tend to peace or good neighbour-liness with strangers who pastured under such servitude rights, and, in time, when the parties interested commonty had proved the extent of their rights, the solum of these commonties was divided up and each laird had a share of the ground (commensurate to the size of his estate and the number of sheep he had been grazing) set apart for his own bestial.
Similarly, some lairds had rights of mossing or of taking peats from a neighbour’s estate, and these rights, to some extent, still exist. Many were the bitter quarrels in the middle of the eighteenth century between neighbouring lairds regarding their marches, and the procedure in these days was to remit the dispute to some neighbouring laird who heard witnesses, examined the ground, and issued his decree-arbitral. The services of Captain Forbes of Newe were frequently invoked as arbiter in his own and adjoining parishes. (Captain Forbes was Commissioner on the forfeited estates of Lord Lovat. He died in 1775 and was buried at Castle Dounie, near Beaufort.) But these disputes were not always settled locally or in a harmonious manner, and the Law Courts had very frequently to be appealed to. Up till then much of the land was grazed promiscuously, but lairds were now watching and protecting their rights
more closely, and demands for marches being delimited
and observed were daily being made.
Glencarvie was the battle-ground on which many of these squabbles and disputes were fought. About that period the east side of Carvieside belonged to the Andersons of Candacraig, while part of the land lying on the west or left side of the burn was the property of Captain Forbes of Newe. At the head of Glencarvie was a commonty where tenants went to their summer sheilings and from which they carried home peats and “pleuds.” The summering was irregularly followed, and in some years it was only visited when the tenants could find it convenient. The Bog of Belnagauld was also grazed in common, and horses were hapshackled and thrown into it by night as well as by day. As is natural, these marches in many instances followed the skylines as wind and water shares,” and were marked, it may have been, by a “green well eye,” an earth-fast boulder, or cairns of small stones at different points on the route, and the disputes were remitted by the disputants to the arbitrament of Aberdeenshire lairds, ministers being occasionally chosen to help as arbiters or as witnesses. From such commonties tenants took home, for “firing,” peats and etnach or juniper, and when tempers were heated by the encroachment of one laird’s tenants on the peat banks of another, the peats, which had been sledged out for drying and setting, were sometimes thrown down and the summer sheilings razed to the ground. Even the minister’s wife did not hesitate to take part in the fray, and it is related that Mrs. M’Sween, the wife of a minister of Strathdon, ordered a tenant to desist from removing peats claimed by her
more closely, and demands for marches being delimited
and observed were daily being made.
on which many of
Glencarvie was the battle-ground
these squabbles and disputes were fought. About that period the east side of Carvieside belonged to the Andersons of Candacraig, while part of the land lying on the west or left side of the burn was the property of
At the head of Glencarvie
Captain Forbes of Newe.
was a commonty where tenants went to their summer sheilings and from which they carried home peats and “pleuds.” The summering was irregularly followed, and in some years it was only visited when the tenants could find it convenient. The Bog of Belnagauld was also grazed in common, and horses were hapshackled and thrown into it by night as well as by day. As is natural, these marches in many instances followed the skylines as wind and water shares,” and were marked, it may have been, by a green well eye,’ an earth-fast boulder, or cairns of small stones at different points on the route, and the disputes were remitted by the disputants to the arbitrament of Aberdeenshire lairds, ministers being occasionally chosen to help as arbiters or as witnesses. From such commonties tenants took home, for “firing,” peats and etnach or juniper, and when tempers were heated by the encroachment of one laird’s tenants on the peat banks of another, the peats, which had been sledged out for drying and setting, were sometimes thrown down and the summer sheilings razed to the ground. Even the minister’s wife did not hesitate to take part in the fray, and it is related that Mrs. M’Sween, the wife of a minister of Strathdon, ordered a tenant to desist from removing peats claimed by her
and, on being disobeyed, required her son to use a fox-cleek to make the breaker of the peace less dilatory in Such privileges of observing his mother’s orders. cutting peats were sometimes held on an easy tenure, for it is related that one laird offered to the laird of Candacraig a tolerance over Newe’s moss if the former would pay a pound of snuff yearly for the privilege thus enjoyed.
“Remove not the ancient land-The injunction, mark,” had been carefully observed by old and young alike, for Steevie’s stone still remains in position and was the determining factor in the settlement of a Old men who boundary dispute within recent years. attended the proof as witnesses related how they had been warned by their fathers never to displace or remove Steevie’s stone, and they little realised, when as boys they were warned by their parents, that as old men they would have to repeat the warning given them by their fathers, and thus support the case of the laird who was contending, and contending rightly, that the surveyor, Stephen, who had been known in years gone by amongst the country people as Steevie, had laid down the marches a hundred years before and that his boundary could yet be identified.
Several colonies of squatters settled down in out-of-the-way places in the glens and built houses, which were little better than hovels, and reclaimed patches of ground. They were allowed to remain on payment of a nominal rent, but even the shilling or two which they were charged was not always paid, and the squatters were not infrequently in arrear. But to-day these colonies have almost completely disappeared and the
peaceful glen that knew them once knows them no more. Corgarff, Nochtyside, Carvieside, Deskryside, the forest of the Bunzeach and the Deochry all witness the efforts of these squatters to form a bield for themselves. But gone are the reeking lums in almost all these districts. No longer do we hear of Rory’s shiel, Dunbar’s stable, Kitty Swearack’s well, Gourley’s well, and the Even the nominal rents did not Highlanders’ ford. appease the claims of some, for it is remembered that one housewife who, when she arrived at the rent collection first thing in the morning to pay her half-crown once a year, quietly hinted that “she thocht she might hae gotten back the rent to buy a bittie tabacca for hersel’.” Thus was gratitude shown by some tenants for the laird’s generosity. In that colony with Eppie was a number of squatters encouraged to live on each side of the burn as outposts of civilisation to keep watch and ward on the neighbouring laird that he did not encroach beyond the burn which formed the march between the two estates. Of that colony there appeared the descriptive couplets :-Elder Begg and Bellman Beattie, Scott Stewart and skirlin’ Eppie, Beardie fierce and Robin strong,
And that completes the Deochry throng. Another band of squatters staked off their claims on Deskryside to the north of Tillyduke School, the names of their holdings being Dundee, Killiecrankie and Claverhouse. But these, alas, have also gone the way of all flesh and not one of these squatters’ families now resides on the ground, while the land has reverted to its primeval state. The names of the possessions
were, it is believed, given to them, not by the tenants themselves, but by the laird of Newe of that day. The tenant of the croft at Claverhouse was the father of the late Sir William MacGregor, who became distinguished as Governor of Queensland and Newfoundland.
A third colony which lived in the upper end of Carvieside has also long since disappeared, and families of the name of Mackomish, Mugach, and MacAndie, progenitors of the Stewarts, are Likewise there was a long unknown in Strathdon.
66 street or row of dwelling-houses on the road between Belnabodach and Blairnamuick and a clachan at Ord-garff, but these are nowhere now to be traced, the larachs having become buried or removed.
Glen folks are a primitive people, and their know-ledge of what can be done and what cannot be done is sometimes vividly illustrated. A yearling stirkie had become unwell, and it was resolved that if the beastie was not better by morning the “Vet,” who lived at a considerable distance from Strathdon, would be consulted. And when morning came with no improve-ment in the animal’s condition a messenger was despatched urging the “Vet ‘ to make his visit without delay. It was with much impatience that an eye was kept on the lower end of the glen, and at long length the Vet’s ‘ pony was seen ambling up the glen. The guidwife proceeded slowly down the road to meet him, and thinking it might hasten his movements, took off her apron, and, waving it round her head, cried to the Vet,” who was now within hearing distance, “Hist ye, Desson, hist ye; the beastie’s jist new deid.” Jealous of the dignity of his profession, Desson turned
his pony’s head homewards, and rebuked the guidwife woman; dae ye think I’m a
D- you,
But Glen folks were not so backward or dull when their neighbours’ affairs were being discussed. The local tailor had erected a nice tidy cottage for himself, more commodious than was generally to be found in the district, and an old crofter who seldom went from home and who saw the new cottage for the first time remarked 66 He with amazement to his son, who accompanied him, maun hae clippit them ticht in their troosers afore he ever pat up sic a braw hoose as that! “
One hundred and fifty years ago many of the improvements were undertaken by the lairds and tenants jointly, the laird performing part of the workmanship and the tenants doing the balance, or the laird would supply the materials and the tenant provide the labour. The land was either taken in by the landlord or it was trenched and reclaimed by the tenants and their families, but there could have been little consideration given to the quality of the soil thus reclaimed, for much of it is once more under broom and heather and the produce grown on it would never have recompensed the tenant for his toil and labour. Much has been done by proprietors in later years to ameliorate the lot of tenants in Strathdon and to make them still more comfortable than they were. The face of the country has been entirely changed. Although the permanent features of the parish have been little altered by the march of time, many holdings and houses which existed fifty years ago have long since passed out of sight. On Deskryside alone one tenant still alive com
mostly houses and yards it is true, and two public-houses in that glen where reekin’ lums are no more, and it is a source of wonderment how all these people were able to yard Content with little, the ” subsist. largely provided them with the necessaries of life. A blue or mountain hare may have been thrown in at the door from time to time, and that, with the aid of a handful or two of frosted corn, ground at the Mill of Ennet, must have formed their simple fare. There had been an early Christian settlement on Deskryside, and the monks, famed for their cultivation of the soil and the growing Deskry-of crops, had ground the corn for their flock. side cannot be visited to-day without pictures being drawn of the life of the earlier inhabitants, their impoverished state, their humble life, and the blizzards that raged and threatened to destroy the drystone biggings and divot roofs of the monks, who, clad in gown and cowl, tended to the spiritual wants and needs of their people and laboured in the cause of the gospel through life unto death.
The buildings have undergone a transformation ever since the late Sir Charles Stewart Forbes succeeded to the Newe estates. He and his successors, the late Mr. Alexander Wallace and his son, Mr. Falconer Wallace, and the late Mr. Tennant of Edinglassie, who became proprietors of the lands originally belonging to the Forbeses, spent largely of their fortunes in improving the houses, thereby introducing a brighter outlook, and making the inhabitants feel that their landlords are a truly interested part of the community who are not unwilling to spend of their means to encourage their tenants to remain in what is a remote and somewhat
inaccessible district, to take a greater interest in their daily work, and to relieve them of that sense of loneliness and hardship which must inevitably creep over them when late storms suspend out-door operations, when wet and stormy harvests are discouraging and when frosted corn offers them little sustenance. Visitors to the district cannot help remarking how well housed the strath and glens are, how much the landlords have the interests of their tenants at heart, and how pleasing is the prospect. In many instances as much as twenty years’ rents have been expended by proprietors in renewing buildings on a small-holding. It can thus be readily judged what the return to a proprietor is on his outlay, but if the laird was not rewarded in rent he at least gained the grateful appreciation of many a thankful tenant. In early days there was many a black house ” in the glen, but to-day, to the credit of the lairds, there is seldom a thatched house to be seen.
The population is, nevertheless, becoming sadly depleted. During the period from 1921 to 1931 the population declined from 952 to 803. In 1766 there were over 2000 inhabitants.
Many of the estates in the parish were of compara-tively small extent. They were mainly in the hands of Forbeses, although the relationship of one Forbes to another is, to-day, not easy to trace. But it has been claimed, on what authority I do not know, that one Forbes was there in the 15th century, and it may have been that they could make the claim of one old lady in Corgarff, who, on being introduced to her new laird, told him with pride that her forebears had been in a particular holding for hundreds of years, and when it
inaccessible district, to take a greater interest in their daily work, and to relieve them of that sense of loneliness and hardship which must inevitably creep over them when late storms suspend out-door operations, when wet and stormy harvests are discouraging and when frosted corn offers them little sustenance. Visitors to the district cannot help remarking how well housed the strath and glens are, how much the landlords have the interests of their tenants at heart, and how pleasing is the prospect. In many instances as much as twenty years’ rents have been expended by proprietors in renewing buildings on a small-holding. It can thus be readily judged what the return to a proprietor is on his outlay, but if the laird was not rewarded in rent he at least gained the grateful appreciation of many a thankful tenant. In early days there was many a 66 black house in the glen, but to-day, to the credit of the lairds, there is seldom a thatched house to be seen.
The population is, nevertheless, becoming sadly depleted. During the period from 1921 to 1931 the population declined from 952 to 803. In 1766 there were over 2000 inhabitants.
Many of the estates in the parish were of compara-tively small extent. They were mainly in the hands of Forbeses, although the relationship of one Forbes to another is, to-day, not easy to trace. But it has been claimed, on what authority I do not know, that one Forbes was there in the 15th century, and it may have been that they could make the claim of one old lady in Corgarff, who, on being introduced to her new laird, told him with pride that her forebears had been in a
particular holding for hundreds of years, and when it
was remarked to her that quite possibly they had been Flood,” she in all seriousness replied, there before the But people will not “God knows, maybe they waur ! ” now live the simple life in the side glens. They must be nearer civilisation: they must be in touch with the daily life of the parish. They must hear the latest gossip, and they must no longer have to walk miles to a shop; the merchant’s van must go to their door. Their dances are not confined to the winter time, nor would the winter stay their merriment despite the blinding snows and stinging blasts which have occasionally to be faced.
The principal events of the year were the Conver-sazione and the Lonach Ball. The Lonach Gathering had been held in the earlier part of the same day as the Lonach Ball, and many were the toasts to be honoured before the Highlanders felt it was necessary for them to retire, some of them finding the road they had trod so often too narrow, while others encountered obstacles which had not hitherto impeded their footsteps. One buirdly, brawny Highlander was staggering westwards, and as he looked in the moonlight at the yawning road-side ditch was heard to mutter, “Ay, ye wid like to get me,” and after another lurch, Na, ye winna get me,” until he finally overbalanced himself and lay in a watery bed contenting himself with amused unconcern with the comment, God, ye hae gotten me.” To the Ball at night parties came from far and near, for the Lonach Ball had a reputation of its own. The attendance became so crowded that various methods were adopted to stem the crush, without avail, and to-day the Ball is as popular as ever. The “Conver” was held early in February. The young men of the district combined to
defray the whole of the expenses connected with the entertainment, and each young man who had been
partner to take his
successful in the ballot had to find a
seated at his table.
table and entertain the guests who were invited to be Every young lady naturally felt that she could not be surpassed by her neighbour and vied with her in the nature of the decorations which the tables carried and in the quality of her silverware, which had been borrowed from the mistress for the evening. But the competition ultimately reached such proportions that a halt had to be called and the “Conver” gradually fell on evil days and never recovered its pristine glory, although it has since been resuscitated and carried on by other organisations.
Within the parish are four churches-the Parish Church, the former Free Church at Roughpark, the Roman Catholic Chapel at Tornahaish, and the quoad sacra Church at Corgarff. There was a Church of Strath-don erected in 1662, and it was almost wholly recon-structed in 1757. The Rev. John Robertson, who was schoolmaster of Strathdon, was ordained minister of that parish on 24th July, 1681. He was deposed in 1717 for having, during the 1715 Rebellion, prayed for the Pretender. The present Parish Church was erected in 1853 on the site of the earlier church and was provided very largely from funds supplied by Sir Charles Forbes, 1st Baronet of Newe, who contributed £1874 6s. 2d. of the total cost of £2100. The Free Church services were originally conducted in a wooden hut on the opposite side of the public road from Tornashean Lodge. The Free Church was erected in 1888 from plans prepared by the late Mr. William Low Henderson,
architect in Aberdeen, and it was due in no small measure to the generous help afforded by the late Mr. James Murray Garden, advocate, who was then factor on the Newe estates, and a very ardent and devoted son of the Free Church, that the church was built. The Corgarff Church and offices were rebuilt by Sir Charles Forbes in 1834. Ground was allocated on Loinorne croft for a small cemetery adjacent to the church, but this cemetery or churchyard was formed, and the old churchyard (where some of General Wade’s soldiers, occupying Corgarff Castle, were buried), situated between Haughton and Corryhoul, is still existent and was extended a few years ago. The incumbent of Corgarff Church had a salary of £10 paid him for preaching to the soldiers who were quartered in the old Castle of Corgarff. The Roman Catholic Chapel and Chapel House were built by Sir Charles Forbes in 1809, at a time when there were Catholics inflowing from Glenlivet than there are to-day. Service was conducted once a month by the priest from Glengairn, but these services have been abandoned in recent years.
It was at the Parish Church of Strathdon that an attempt was made to smother the minister, Mr. McSween, whose memorial is built into the outer wall of the present church, while another minister, it is alleged, had his head cut off. McSween was not popular. He was supposed to be possessed of second sight and that may account for the attempt to take his life. But these barbarous days are, fortunately, no longer with us.
The inscription on Mr. McSween’s tablet is as follows:-Mr.
Stray Memories of Strathdon
Heb. IX. 27 It is appointed unto men once to die but after this the Judgement. II. Thess. 11-5 Remember ye not that when I was yet with you I told you these things.
Herely THE Ashes of THE Revd. & Worthy Sert. of Jesus Christ Mr. Donald McSween Minr. of the Gospel at STRDON who died June the 8 1730 aged 38.
A Watchman faithful honest just Who ne’r betray’d his sacred trust Whose love to Christ and to his flock Breathed in all that e’r he spoke.
McS. children
Memento Mori
McSween’s wife was the widow of Thomas Alexander, minister of Logie-Coldstone, and she had been the second wife of Black Jock of Skellater, who was the founder of the family of Inverernan.
There is a large number of beautiful mural tablets in the Church of Strathdon, mostly in marble, to the memory of lairds and others. There is also a tablet in the entrance porch to the memory of the late Rev. William Watt. A small tablet was provided and fitted up by the parishioners in Corgarff Church to the
memory of the Rev. Archibald Thomson,
The burial place and monument of the Wallaces of Candacraig is outside and at the east-end of the church. There is also one very old stone within the chancel to the memory of William Forbes of Newe, who died in
This William Forbes must have been a man of some distinction and more highly educated than his contem-poraries, for he left behind him a small book in manuscript containing information regarding various members of the different Forbes families, and in recording their death he in several instances remarks that the deceased was buried ” under his own dask.” There are also several vaults beneath the present church where Newe Forbeses and Candacraig Andersons had been buried, but there have been no interments since such burials were prohibited by Act of Parliament.
Services are held once a month in the old side school at Tillyduke (now disused), and until 1913 they were also held in the school at Knocklea. Whether it was because of the non-attendance of the lairds at Tarland Church that the tenants also in the disjoined parts of Tarland and Migvie found an excuse for not going more regularly to church we need not attempt to discover. Perhaps it is more charitable to suppose that Tarland Church was too far away (there are about twelve miles between the Church of Strathdon and the Church of Tarland). But Sir Charles John Forbes, the 4th Baronet, bequeathed the free annual income of a sum of £250 in trust to the minister and kirk session of Strathdon as remuneration to the minister for his services in attending to the religious and spiritual wants of his tenants residing in Tarland and Migvie parish by
preaching to them in these schools. One at least of the masons engaged in the building of the present Church of Strathdon remained in the parish for many years,
during which time he was engaged He ultimately lived entirely by himself and one Willie was one of the few
as estate mason. morning
was found dead in bed.
in the parish. The old man was lame and was unable to follow his occupation for a considerable But he could turn his hand to
time before his death.
odd jobs and spent a good deal of his time in his carpenter’s workshop. Willie was fond of a dram and there was a squaring-up between the inn-keeper and the carpenter at the end of each half-year. He was no pen-man, and when the inn-keeper’s account was rendered, the services of a neighbour-the local constable generally -were enlisted to make out Willie’s contra account. After carefully narrating all the articles which he had supplied or work he had done for the inn-keeper, but of which he had no record, Willie would ask how his account compared with the inn-keeper’s, and on learning that he was still gd. short, he very readily found a means of squaring matters by ejaculating, “Ninepence! weel, pit doon anither haimmer shaft !
Amongst the other characters in the parish-and it is to be regretted that the portraits of them were never painted, for they were worthy of the brush or pencil of the late Sir George Reid-were the souter and the beadle. The shoemaker was very independent, and at times aped the gentleman. He was usually to be found in attendance at all funerals, and he was never properly attired unless he wore a pair of yellow chamois gloves and had his black cuttie reekin’ as he walked closely
behind the hearse. He is not wholly forgotten in the Court House of Aberdeen, where on one occasion he was called upon to give evidence regarding an assault upon a neighbour. The following colloquy between him and the fiscal took place :-Your name is William George?”
“And you know Archibald Davidson, the penter?”
“Archibald Davidson, the carpenter.”
Fa? Airchie, feich! fa disna ken Airchie.”
His knowledge of Archie was thereupon readily Like many another country accepted by the Court. souter, William tarried over his jobs, and orders were seldom executed with sufficient expedition to suit his customers. It is related that an order had remained unexecuted for a year, and his customer, in calling for the boots, sarcastically remarked that he thought he had better give him an order now for another pair. But this was too much for Willie’s pride as a tradesman. Working all through the night Willie called upon his customer on the following evening, and, without announcing himself in any way, threw in the second pair of boots with the laconic remark, “There’s yer beets.”
The beadle, Rob Forbes, went to the pulpit with the “books” each Sunday during winter with his Forbes tartan plaid wound round his shoulders.
The wealth of India has a close connection with many of the improvements made in Strathdon and the comfort of its inhabitants. No tale of Strathdon would be com-
plete without that knowledge being made known. John Forbes of Bombay (“Bombay Jock”), who was the son of John Forbes of Bellabeg and a brother of George Forbes, the minister of Leochel, went out, it is believed, as purser of a ship to India and there laid the foundations of a huge fortune. His nephew, Charles, the son of the minister of Leochel, subsequently went out to India to his uncle’s office and helped materially to maintain the reputation of the house and to add to the large sum which had been amassed by his uncle. Newe was purchased by John Forbes of Bombay (he is buried in the Parish Church of Strathdon) surveys had been commenced of the whole estate and improvements begun, mainly in the formation of plantations, of which 851 acres had been planted after 1810.
Soon after
The turnpike road in these days was on the north side of the river and, owing to its proximity to Castle Newe, which had been erected by the 1st Baronet, it was resolved to make use of funds which had been left in Chancery by John Forbes of Bombay for the diversion of the road to the south side of the river opposite Castle Newe. By a codicil to his Will, dated 1st March, 1821, John Forbes of Bombay bequeathed a legacy of £2000 to his executors in trust for the purpose of building a bridge over the River Don in Strathdon, “the situation to be chosen by them.” The testator died in London on 18th June, 1821, and owing to some difficulties in the interpretation of the bequest-whether it was the legacy only or the legacy and the accumula-tions which the executors were entitled to spend-the fund lay dormant for more than thirty years, and it was not until 1853, after application had been made to the
Court of Chancery, that the question in dispute was settled. By that time the fund with accrued interest amounted to £7992 11s. 7d., and when the money was actually uplifted it had still further increased 8224 12s. 5d. The Court appointed Mr. John Willet, C.E., Aberdeen, to report upon the scheme. Various bodies interested were consulted and consents given, subject to the condition that a sum of £200 should be handed over for the upkeep of the Donside turnpike road. A third report, dated 8th June, 1858, was submitted by Mr. Willet for consideration, and the proposals contained in it were :-(1) The diversion of the turnpike road through Strath-don from the north to the south side of the river between a point near the farm house of Buchaam on the east, and a point near the Milltown of Newe adjoining the 43rd milestone on the turnpike road on the west, and the continuation of the diversion along the north side to join the old line of road.
(2) The erection at the point of diversion at Buchaam of a bridge across the Don to consist of two arches of 50 feet span each.
(3) The erection at the point of diversion at Mill of Newe of a bridge across the Don to consist of two main arches of 40 feet span each and two side arches of 15 feet span. Both bridges were to be of the available waterway shown on the several drawings lodged with the report.
(4) The erection of an iron or wooden footbridge across the Don near the Church and Manse of Strathdon for the use of parishioners attending the church.
(5) The re-building of the old bridge across the Don at
The offer of Messrs. John Fyfe & Adam Mitchell, builders at Kemnay, was accepted for the diversion of the road, the two bridges over the Don at Buchaam and Milltown of Newe, and a bridge over the water of Deskry, for the slump sum of £5245. The works were reported as completed on 11th November, 1859. Extras brought the total expenditure up to £6915 4s. 4d. These extras consisted of additional embankments, increased depths of foundations, and road fencing.
The old road was shut up and the new road handed over to the Donside Turnpike Trustees in the spring of 1862. The erection of the three bridges over what the engineer described in his report as “two impetuous and fitful rivers in the Highlands of Scotland, frequently and suddenly swollen into mountain torrents,” was thus completed.
The diversion which was originally proposed com-menced somewhat to the east of the bridge of Buchaam, but instead of proceeding northwards past the Sawmill of Newe it proceeded along the south side of the Don past and through Meikle Tolly as far as Boathouse, where it crossed the river and joined the turnpike half-ways between Mill of Newe and Colquhonnie. But in 1857 this line of turnpike was disapproved of and the
present line adopted.
The replacement of the bridge at Cockbridge, which had been swept away by a tremendous flood on 9th August, 1849, could not, unfortunately, be included in the scheme. It had withstood the floods of 1829 and
1839, but collapsed
foundations of the bridge had probably never been sunk to a sufficient depth at the time of its erection and the two floods of 1829 and 1839 had still further undermined and weakened the structure. At any rate, the flood of 1849 was not so heavy as the two earlier floods. bridge of Cockbridge was one of the bridges built by
on the great military or
General Wade’s troops
government road from Perth to Fort-George. Prior to the erection of the bridge the only means of crossing the river was by fords and small temporary wooden foot-bridges, these fords and foot-bridges being both Between 1849, when the frequently carried away. bridge was washed away, and 1882 resort had again to be made to fording the river and crossing it by unsubstantial wooden bridges, and it was not until 1882 that the present bridge was erected by the proprietors of Allargue.
The Farquharsons of Allargue or Alerg or Alden-lergue are one of the oldest families in the district, having possessed that estate since the middle of the seventeenth century. Several members of their family out “in the 45 Rising and served as officers in the Prince’s Army. The family is now represented by Lieut.-Col. Wilson-Farquharson, D.S.O. One of them was an assistant preacher at Loinorne, or Corgarff, and subsequently was transferred to Coldstone. When the Great North of Scotland Railway Company were running char-a-bancs on their Three Rivers Tour from
the Dee to the Spey, that Company strengthened the bridge at Cockbridge by the insertion of iron beams to
carry the roadway.
The old turnpike on the north side of the river which ran alongside the river between Castle Newe and Green-style was washed away by the Muckle Spate of 1829. The balance of the Bridges’ Fund is now in the hands of the Aberdeen County Council and forms part
of a fund known as the Bridge of Don Fund.
The River Don is crossed by eight bridges within the parish at Cockbridge, at Luib, at Tornahaish, at Glenconry, at Poldhullie, at Church of Strathdon, at Mill of Newe and at Buchaam. There is also a wooden bridge at Garchory erected by timber merchants when cutting Belniden Plantation. The bridge at Luib and the road connecting up the old military road with the Donside turnpike were constructed by the 1st Baronet of Newe at his own cost. On the parapet of the Luib bridge there is a panel or cope with the inscription :–
Built by Sir Charles Forbes, Baronet of Newe and Edinglassie. MDCCCXXX.
The bridge at Tornahaish, which took the place of a wooden bridge erected by public subscription, and the bridge at Mill of Glenconrie were erected by the County Council. That worthy old man, Donald Stewart, who lived at Colnabaichan Tollhouse until his death, was
largely instrumental in collecting the necessary funds for the wooden bridge at Tornahaish, and his labours were recognised and rewarded by the people of the
district, who presented him with a
gold watch, of
which he was justly proud. The bridge of Poldhullie was erected by Black Jock of Inverernan, a son of Jock of Skellater, in the year of the first Rising, and the bridge at the Church of Strathdon was built by the
Parish Council of Strathdon
for ten years to meet the cost.
taken over by the County Council, while the iron bridge at the Milltown of Newe or Sawmill of Newe and the bridge of Buchaam were erected, as has already been described, out of funds left by the late John Forbes of Bombay for the purpose. The inscription on the iron bridge at Sawmill of Newe is :-Erected
Sir Charles Forbes Baronet of Newe and Edinglassie 1858
from a bequest by his grand uncle John Forbes Esq., of Newe.
There are also several wooden foot-bridges over the river Don erected by proprietors in the parish. Before the provision of these bridges the river was crossed by innumerable fords at suitable places through which sheep from Tarland and districts farther afield must have passed on their way to the commonty grazings. One ford immediately opposite Candacraig House and near the site of the houses at Tomachon was known as Gillanders Ford. The name was corrupted into Glaners Ford and Glenners Ford and was supposed by some to point to the spot where the glenners or families in their annual migration to the glens with their sheep for the summer grazing passed through the river. But this explanation, like many another regarding place-names, is too fanciful, and the name represents nothing more than the name of a family who had probably lived at Tomachon or in the vicinity of the ford. This is
clearly shown in the accompanying extract from the Minute Books of the Presbytery of Alford, dated 7th May, 1873, where Gillanders Ford marks the point at which the boundary between the ecclesiastical parishes of Corgarff and Strathdon leaves the river and proceeds in a northerly direction towards the village of Rough-park :-44
The Presbytery agreed to recommend as suitable district to be erected in the parish of Corgarff quoad sacra the following portions of the parishes of Strathdon and Tarland the boundary line of the said new parish being as follows namely -commencing on the east at a point on the River Don known as Gillanders Ford a little below Candacraig House where the Parish of Strathdon and a detached part of the Parish of Tarland meet and going northward by an irregular line along the existing boundary between the said parish of Strathdon and the said detached portion of the parish of Tarland. The proposed parish is bounded on the east by the parish of Strathdon, on the north by the parishes of Strathdon and Kirkmichael or Tomintoul, on the west by the parish of Kirk-michael or Tomintoul, on the south by the parish of Glenmuick or Glengairn and from a point at the top or near the top of Meikle Sgroilleach where the estates of Skellater and Inverernan meet, the remaining part of the eastern boundary pursues a straight line to a point on the River Don where it touches the north-west extremity of Delhandy Wood and then downward along the said river till it reaches Gillanders Ford aforesaid
A handsome donation was given by the 1st Baronet of Newe to the construction of the present turnpike road between Alford and Strathdon. And later, in 1881, his family made what is known as the New Road between Boltinstone and its junction with the Donside turnpike Deskry farm, thus saving a very stiff climb road near either from or to Boltinstone.
The Baronetcy of Newe was created in 1823 and the tenantry, amid much rejoicing at the honour conferred on their laird, erected a large cairn on Lonach Hill with slabs inscribed in Gaelic and English. The inscription
ran:-The tenantry of the lairds of Newe, Edinglassie, Bellabeg and Skellater in testimony of their affection. and gratitude have erected this pile to their highly distinguished and beloved Landlord Sir Charles Forbes, Bart., M.P., on his elevation to the dignity of a Baronet of the United Kingdom by his Majesty George IV in 1823.
The cairn is falling to pieces and the inscriptions on the slabs have become defaced by the ravages of the weather and are now indecipherable. On the hill of Tornahaish a similar cairn was erected with the inscription :-:-Erected by the tenants of Sir Charles Forbes in Corgarff to the memory of his eldest son the late John Forbes, Esq., 27th July, 1845.
The panel or slab on which the inscription was cut was taken to Ben Newe to be built into the wall of that house.
Prior to 1831, when the building of Castle Newe commenced under the 1st Baronet, there stood the old House of Newe which was subsequently incorporated in the castle. The old house was a building of four
storeys with a projection in front and a door in the centre of the building. Over the doorway was the motto
Justitia Columna Domus.” The old House of Newe was built by John Forbes of Bluebonnets-the 3rd Guidman of Newe-in 1605. Towards the end of the It was, however, eighteenth century the laird of Newe was in embarrassed
circumstances and Newe was sold.
bought back into the family by John Forbes of Bombay, the uncle of the 1st Baronet. The plans of the castle were prepared by the distinguished Aberdeen architect, Archibald Simpson, and the material for the dressed work was Kildrummy sandstone. There would appear to have been some doubts troubling the 1st Baronet regarding the site to be selected for the castle. The plans had been submitted to the late Mr. Duncan Davidson, whose firm were law agents and factors for Newe, and it is related how Mr. Davidson in submitting the plans to the laird for his approval ventured to remark that he had had a dream in which he saw the castle standing on the high ground to the north-east of the old building-somewhere near where the large water reservoir supplying Castle Newe is situated; but Sir Charles indicated his dissatisfaction with the suggestion by returning the plans to Mr. Davidson with the amusing remark, “You will have to dream again.” And so, after much deliberation, Castle Newe came to be erected on the site of the old house, which was preserved by being built into and forming part of the castle until in 1927 the castle was, like so many other mansion houses throughout the country, demolished. The freestone dressings were removed by a contractor to whom they had been sold and now fo
part of the Elphinstone Hall at King’s College, Old
The present Newe motto is “Altius ibunt qui ad
summa nituntur.”
The agricultural tenants paid their rents twice a year, while the tenants of Skellater and Edinglassie paid their rents in one sum at Martinmas yearly. The collections occupied two days. The payment of rent was but one thing: there was much to be discussed between factor and tenant, who might not see the factor again for another six months, or it might even be another year, unless there was something urgent to dispose of and the factor had either to go to Strathdon or the tenant had to come to Aberdeen. The collection of the parish rates took place on the same day as the rent collection. It saved the attendance of the tenants on two separate days, but it was not without its evil effects, for it necessitated the rate-payers or rent-payers waiting for an inordinate time, during which the barley-bree was partaken of much too freely.
At the rent collections fresh bargains were discussed or negotiated and six months cogitation on why a hen-house should not be renewed generally found the tenant so worked up over the enormity of his request that until comparative coolness had been restored little progress. with such a weighty question could be made or finality reached. And if the request was refused, the tenant generally found himself later in the day relating to the goodwife what had passed, with a lurid description of the factor. Harry had been carefully coached by his goodwife before he left home in the morning that when he met the factor at the collection he was once again to
be reminded about the smoky kitchen vent, but Harry, good man, on meeting so many boon companions had forgotten his wife’s commands, and to exonerate him-self felt it was necessary to put up a brave show when his wife asked him with what success the complaint had met. The drink was in and Harry’s language was not ‘Him, I could mak’ naething o’ him ava, but I lat ma tongue wag and I tell you he got his kale throu’ the reek as he has na got it for mony a day.” ye should “Oh! Man, man,” saicht the goodwife, hae been civil tae him. What wye can I ever look him in the face again or invite him into the hoose? “Haud yer tongue,” roared Harry, “I wis weel oot ower the hill afore I brak oot upo’ him! “
of the choicest.
Sixty or seventy years ago the farms and crofts were all valued by the late Mr. Robert Walker or his son, Mr. G. J. Walker, and negotiations at rent collections were invariably based on the figure which either of these gentlemen had fixed, but these rents were not always acceptable to the tenants, and while the presence of such a valuation was a very useful aid to the factor, it did not always help to shorten the discussion. The lease of the largest farm on the estate was nearing its conclusion and the tenant had agreed to the rent being fixed by Mr. G. J. Walker. The draft lease had been submitted to the tenant and repeated requests for its return were in vain. The tenant had accordingly been invited to attend early, before the crush commenced, to have the terms of his lease adjusted. He was an irascible old man and the factor had not yet enjoyed his first pipe after breakfast to soothe him for the many troubles which would arise. The tenant, a little grey-haired
man, was asked by the factor, the late Mr. J. Murray Garden, whether he had brought the draft lease with him. Indicating that he had not done so, the tenant so nettled the factor-who was not usually given to wrath or put out of his stride-by diddling his knee in his clasped hands and by making a hissing sound through his teeth as if he were setting a dog at a cat, that the factor lost his temper and barked out, agree to accept Mr. Walker’s valuation under the new lease?” This drew the unexpected rejoinder, Walker and the grub are the twa pests o’ oor country-“Did you not
Half a century ago the rent collection meant the gathering of the clans, where tenants came to pay their rents and keepers called to receive their half-yearly wages (not one half of what they are receiving to-day), and to liquidate a goodly share of them before they left the vicinity of the inn. Tenants and servants alike were reluctant to bring their convivialities to an end, for it might be another half-year before they met again. In the shorter days of December darkness had fallen before the box-carts left with their human freight lying in the bottoms of the carts, and broken heads and bruised ribs were not infrequent incidents of the journey. The old souter could be seen spreadeagled in a foot or two of snow “o’er a’ the ills o’ life victorious,” dead to the world and unconscious and careless of all that was taking place around him. Eppie Dougal in her bonnie white mutch freshly ironed for the occasion had long since gone home without having induced a hard-hearted factor to disgorge her nominal rent for “a bittie
Disgruntled tenants and irritable factors existed then as they do to-day, but notwithstanding the inevitable troubles and heated arguments that would sometimes occur in the course of the half-yearly meetings of factor and tenant, the relations between them were extremely pleasant, although it may have required the wisdom of Solomon and the diplomacy of the Evil One to pacify the tenant who had been nursing his wrath for days prior to his meeting with the factor, who could see no good thing in a written lease which he could not under-stand, whose houses were at the “doon fa’in’,” and who could not live at the rent he was paying. But a discreet laird and a kindly but strict factor smoothed out the creases, and the laird’s whisky or the factor’s wiles helped to allay rancorous feelings, and the disputes that threatened were soon forgotten until another half-year
came round.
hens were in some instances provided to the laird as part of the rent, but such services have fallen into disuetude and the hen-wife no longer takes delivery of the poultry.
Stray Memories of Strathdon
One of the Andersons of Candacraig had concluded negotiations with one of his tenants for a new lease, which had been duly prepared and submitted to him along with a copy of the recently introduced estate regulations. The legal jargon of the regulations had so puzzled the farmer, who felt he was being so “bun-in that he could never hope and was very unwilling to observe the provisions of the lease, that he called on the laird to explain that he could not possibly agree to renew his tenancy on such stringent terms. With one of those flashes of brilliance that sometimes
inspire one, the laird quietly remarked, Do you keep
the Ten Commandments?” tenant replied, Deed, sir, I try.” laird, “if you keep my regulations as well as you keep the Ten Commandments I will be quite satisfied,” and John left radiantly happy after a glass of the laird’s whisky had been duly drunk, promising to return the lease duly executed without alterations. But it was not always thus, and the factor met with failure as well as
Not less promptly the Well,” said the
Funeral dirigies are now a thing of the past, but it was not an uncommon custom forty or fifty years ago to find a laid table waiting the return of the principal mourners from the churchyard at the house of the deceased, where a sumptuous repast with abundance of mountain dew regaled them, and the subject that had brought them together for the afternoon’s entertain-ment was never once referred to. It was no novelty either to see a bereft parent step forward before “liftin'” and, raising a glass to his lips, drink the health of those attending the funeral and thank them all for their attendance. It was more akin to an auction sale than to a funeral, when the out-going tenant at the close of the roup expresses his indebtedness to bidders for their support and wishes them good luck with their purchases. Funerals and displenish sales were curiously intermingled, especially when “Tombis” was present, for his skirl could be heard at funerals as well as at auction sales, and it was not unlikely that his only story was being recited at the one as at the other-how he had been unwell with influenza and how he had told some wifie in Glenlivet of the nature of his ailment and
how he had suffered devilish pains in his head, when she offered him her sympathy and consolation with the remark, “Ay, it’s a queer thing, it aye tak’s a body in
And no doubt the remark had so
the wike spot!”
tickled Tombis at the time that his skirl could have been
heard in far off Glenbuchat.
Refreshments were liberally supplied at funerals, bread and cheese and whisky being handed out while the mourners were gathering, and, if the corpse had been brought from a distance, some member of the family of the deceased person usually brought whisky, and the members were invited to enter the vestry and partake of the dram there, or it was offered to those assembled in the churchyard either before or after the interment had taken place. If during winter, with deep snow on the ground, the coffin was carried on stilts-it may have been for miles and the strongest and sturdiest of the mourners were expected to take their turn in carrying the remains. The cortege was preceded by the beadle or grave-digger, who continued to call next fower” when he thought the relays of carriers had borne the coffin for a sufficiently long distance and needed to be relieved of the duty until their turn came round again. During very severe storms and when the deceased belonged to a neighbouring parish a short cut would be taken instead of following the turnpike road. The story is related how on one occasion when it was very heavy going and the carriers, exhausted, had almost confessed themselves beaten, a member of the family, who was providing the requisite stimulant, bored his way forward as the coffin rested on the snow and offered encouragement with the remark, “Jist anither houpie, lads, and we’ll fair fup him!’
Burials were treated sometimes with levity and the beadle did not always escape condemnation. Time and again the grave-digger in the parish churchyard had dug the grave too short or too narrow, with the result that a good deal of time was spent in the churchyard waiting until the grave-digger had enlarged the excavation and so rectified matters. But the parishioners were so incensed with his conduct that the matter had to be dealt with by the Session, and the grave-digger, after being duly summoned and reprimanded by that body, promised that his failures of the past to do things properly and decently would not be repeated. In a country parish the grave-digger’s conduct and the session’s reproof were, of course, the subject of discussion in every household. At the very next funeral, which was arriving from a distance, the grave-digger unfortunately knew nothing of the deceased person or his stature, and when the coffin was lowered into the grave it stuck. Knowing the position of the grave-digger and the recent reprimand, mourners naturally glowered at the grave-digger, who, unceremoniously pushing the mourners aside till he could see for himself how matters actually stood, turned round, and, addressing the minister, who looked very perplexed and uncomfortable, said, in a loud voice, “Did ye ever see sic a kist? “
It may be of interest to record the situation of various crofts and houses which, for economic considerations, were vacated by their occupants, never to be rebuilt or restored, and all traces of which have been lost and are not now even remembered by the older generation. The dwelling-house of the laird of Culquharry, which
was a small estate on the south side of the Don and comprised lands from Brughs to Bluefold, stood in what was called the Nether Haugh. The buildings had been demolished long before 1823, and the site is now
trees plane
which had
distinguished by twelve
surrounded or marked the enclosing walls of the garden. There is no reliable history of this branch of the Forbes family.
With the
Midtown was half-way between Quarry Cottage and the rifle range, which is now abandoned, and on which a Lord Mayor’s cup was shot for and won by the Strathdon Volunteers. There were other two houses in the immediate proximity of Midtown. exception of Quarry Cottage there are now no traces of All that remains to remind us that there was a John’s Farm, named probably after the son of the 1st Baronet of Newe, is a scrubby tree bent and twisted with the tempests of a hundred years, which when planted may have been something to admire. John’s Farm included the croft of Bluefold, the croft of Boathouse, the croft of Waterside, and part of the land on the farm of Meikle Tolly. The site of the buildings was at the side of the road leading to the croft of Bluefold. The larger part of John’s Farm had been reclaimed from the heather and had been part of the improvements undertaken in the early years of the nineteenth century.
The Place of Bellabeg, or Bellabeg House, had a small estate attached to it. The estate was bounded on the north by the water-shed with Deochry, on the east by the Broomhill plantation, on the south by the River Don, and on the west by Cummerton-also a small estate. Parkhouse did not form any part of Bellabeg.
Bellabeg House was erected in 1732 and had an addition built to it in 1765. The original owner was John Forbes, who married Christian Shepherd, daughter of the minister of Coldstone. His motto was
“Non Temere.”
Redfold was situated to the west of Little Tolly and lay alongside the strip of young trees known to-day as
the Sawmill belt.
Whitesheal is marked by a few trees near the Burn of Deskry on the farm of Ardgeith.
Follyhall was a possession lying between Lochar-muick and Howbog on Carvieside. Tradition says that the young laird had built for himself too pretentious a dwelling-house and that his father, when he saw it, said that the only appropriate name for it was Follyhall.
The Old Hall of Lochans was also situated on Carvieside, but it is not known what was the nature of this building.
The name Locharmuick, although still retained, is that of a grazing only, the houses having been demolished and the stones removed from time to time for the erection of other buildings on the estate. It is situated on the west side of the Burn of Carvie. It is worthy of note that the late James Staats Forbes, Chairman of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway, and one of the leading business men in the City of London, claimed descent from the Forbeses of Lochar-muick.
The dwelling-house at Mill of Glenconrie is believed to have been erected for the use of the widow ladies of Inverernan.
Camasour was a croft on the Inverernan estate and incorporated in the farm of Lonach. The buildings
were situated in the belt of timber at the roadside, a short distance to the west of Forbes Lodge.
Bruchroy croft was situated on the north side of the Delnadamph road to the west of Badachurn.
Balnabreck was a small possession about 500 yards to the north-west of Torrandhu on Ernanside.
Daldergy was situated at the turnpike roadside almost opposite the houses at Delhandy.
The croft at Altenlian is represented to-day by the keeper’s croft at Delnadamph. The old drove road or cart track to Delnadamph and Inchrory followed the south boundary of the croft and passed through the plantation on the south side of Delnadamph Lodge.
Tolnaskinch represented arable and grazing ground at the head of Deskryside, comprising part of the Bunzeach and the farms of Chapelton, Hillockhead, Craigiedows, and Tillyduke, etc.
Tollohespick is now Meikle Tolly.
Corries Croft was a small holding situated to the west of the gardens at Edinglassie House.
Despite the lack of educational facilities in remote glens where there was no higher grade school and where advanced education could only be obtained by living away from home of which many parents did not approve-some Strathdon mothers held a high opinion of the wisdom believed to be possessed by their offspring in their most tender years. On one occasion a mother after bathing and drying her first-born, who was then two or three months old, invited the child when it was being clothed in its nightgown to “Pit in yer hannie, little mannie.” Naturally there was no response. She renewed the invitation in more couthy and soothing
language, only to meet with a similar want of action on the part of the infant, and the fond mother, almost distracted when the child did not comply, moaned, “God preserve’s, hae I borne an eediot?”
But the children’s lack of general knowledge and their inability to deal with subjects to which they were unaccustomed was noticeable and was more or less common to all. The class was engaged in their reading lesson and the story dealt with the antipathy of a dog towards Continental armies, the dog growling ominously and savagely whenever German soldiers were referred to, while when British soldiers were mentioned the dog would leap and frolic. The teacher was tempted to ask his pupils if any of them could give him the name of a Scottish regiment, when one boy, whose education had been very much neglected and who was a stranger to the glen, immediately in time-honoured custom answered by cracking his thumbs and replying in a strong highland accent, “The Gordon Highlanders.” “Well done, Murdoch, was his reward and the teacher was tempted to repeat the question by asking the class for the name of another Highland regiment. But a puzzled stillness reigned until Murdoch’s itching thumbs were again cracking, and on being asked for his reply, he gaily sang out, “The Coonty Cooncil.” The County Council may feel honoured that their reputation is so well known and so highly esteemed.
In another little side school where the schoolmaster regarded himself as a first-class arithmetician, it was his invariable practice when there were visitors to the school to turn his advanced pupils on to arithmetic so that the visitors might be awed by the scholars’ wide knowledge
of the subject. On this particular morning the school-master had over-reached himself, for when he passed behind the back of the pupils to examine their work
there was a crescendo of shouts of
Blockhead,” until losing all patience he rushed to the blackboard and wrote the necessary figures on it, only to find that he himself had failed to obtain the correct solution. The School Board member was glad to escape from the school to stifle his laughter when he wondered what would happen if little fingers of derision were pointed at the dominie and shouts of Blockhead! “assailed him.
The children whose lot is cast in such inaccessible districts are very much to be sympathised with and pitied, for apart from the long distances which many of them have to travel in stormy weather, they are in such a state when they reach school that they could not assimilate knowledge, however kind the teacher may be in her attention to them. But very young children face the stinging blasts of winter with cheery laughter and abandon and they are ready by night time, with the wild sough of a raging blizzard in their ears and the prospect of another heavy fall of snow by morning, to toddle off to their welcome beds to dream of the hoard of gold that may be unearthed on some hillside and to hear a mother’s fondest wish and salutation accompanying
them :-Gweed nicht,
A soun’ sleep,
And a blithe wauknin’.
Alexander M’Hardy was head keeper and subse-overseer at Candacraig for many years. His quently son is presently head keeper at Candacraig. Alexander M’Hardy’s father-in-law, Charles M’Donald, was his predecessor as head keeper for the late Mr. Alexander One rainy day Mr. Alexander Falconer Wallace, commenting that it was very strange that his glass was so high while the rain was so continuous, received the reply from M’Donald, “Ach, weel! the barometer jist hasna had time to adjust hersel’ tae the wither.”
Falconer Wallace.
There are traditional tales in Corgarff of gold hides. The three Ords-Ordachoinachan, Ordachoy and Ord-garff-can, it is said, all be seen at once from one spot, and there a pot of gold is hidden. Where’s the spot?
Half way between the two burns of Garchory there is an oval circle of stones like an old dyke said to be a fold for gathering the cattle at night for protection from wild beasts. In the centre of the circle is a bull’s hide, containing gold, and the bull’s hide was placed there so that the cattle put into the fold would, by their movements, obliterate all traces of concealment and the marks of digging.
On the hill opposite Garchory there is a silver hide. In a cairn about opposite the upper shooting butt silver coins were found. They were like fourpenny pieces in size, and were discovered when the dyke enclosing the plantation was being formed about 130 years ago. Numbers of these coins were handed from hand to hand amongst scholars.
Alexander M’Hardy, who is 81 years of age and still hale and hearty, claims that the farm of Burnside in
Corgarff was in possession of his family for 700 years in direct succession for that period from father to son. It was given up by Charles M’Hardy at Whitsunday,
1922, and the long tenancy was thus broken.
It is recorded that M’Hardys held the lands of Corgarff under a Royal Seal in 1388


Aldahuie, 13. Allargue, 12, 41. Allt an Aighean,
Allt Bheannaich, 12.
Alla Clach Meann, 12. Allt Craig Mheann, 12.
Allt Dunain, 12.
Allt an Mhicheil, 12.
Allt Reppachie, 12. Allt Tuileach, 12.
Altenlian, 56.
Andersons of Candacraig, 15, 24, 35,
Badge and Motto, 20.
Tablet in Strathdon Church, 19.
Auchernach, 15.
Balnabreck, 56.
Bellabeg House, 54, 55-Belnagauld, 10.
Ben Newe, 13, 45.
Bombay Jock,” 38.
Boundary Commissioners, 22.
Breagach, 13.
Bridges over Don, 38-42. Brown Cow Hill, 13.
Bruchroy, 56.
Building Improvements, 28.
Cairn Bhacain, 13.
Cairn Culchavie, 11.
Cairnmore, 13.
Camasour, 55-Candacraig, 12, 15, 25, 43. Castle Newe, 12, 42, 45, 46.
Motto, 46, 47-Churches and Church Services, 32-36,42
Cockbridge, 12, 40-42.
Cock Burn, 12, 14.
Common Pasturages, Marches, and Servitudes, 22, 24.
Conversazione, 31.
Corgarff, 7, 21, 26, 32, 41, 44, 59, 60. Castle, 14, 15, 33. Corries Croft, 56.
Craigievar, 13.
Croft of Craig, 16.
Culquharry, 53-Daldergy, 56.
Delhandy, 14, 15, 44. Delnadamph, 12-14, 56. Deskryside, 26, 28. Disappearance
of Holdings, 25, 55.
Don, Source of, 11.
Drumnalyne, 16.
Duiver Hut, 13.
Edinglassie, 12, 20, 29, 47. Educational Facilities, 56-58.
Entertainments, 31.
Factor and Tenant, 47, 48, 50. Faichla, 16.
Farquharsons of Allargue, 41.
Finnylost, 16, 18, 19.
Fleuchats Burn, 9.
Follyhall, 55.
Forbes, Sir Charles Stewart, 13, 29, 32, 35, 42, 43, 45.
Forbes, George, of Skellater, 14, 15.
Forbes, Capt. John, of Newe, 23.
Forbes of Bellabeg, and Motto, 55. Forbes families, 13.
Forbes, Rob, the beadle, 37.
Forty-five Rebellion, 14.
Funerals, 51-53-Funeral Dirigies, 51.
George, Willie, the souter, 36.
Gillanders Ford, 43, 44.
Glenbuchat, 7.
Glencarvie, 8, 17, 19, 24.
Glenconrie, 8, 20, 42.
Glen Deskrie, 8.
Glenernan, 8, 23. Glengairn, 7.
Glenmuick, 7.
Glennochty, 8, 23.
Houston, John, of Edinglassie, 21.
Inchrory, 11, 56.
Inverernan, 12, 20, 21, 34, 42, 44. Invernochty, 7.
John’s Farm, 54.
Lagganauld, 12.
Land, Reclamation of, 28. “Lass of the Lecht,” 8.
Ledmacoy, 17.
Lochans, 17, 55-Locharmuick, 55-Loinherry Burn, 12.
Lonach Ball, 31.
Lonach Hill, 14.
Cairn on, 45-Luib, Bridge of, 42.
Lynmore, 17.
M’Gregor, Sir William, 27. M’Hardy, A., Notes by, 59. M’Sween, Rev. Donald, 24, 33-Meikle Glencarvie, 17.
Midtown, 54.
Mill of Glenconrie, 55.
Mill of Newe, 18, 40.
Milltown Burn, 12. Muir Veannach, 13.
Mullochdhu, 13.
Newe, 21, 25, 27, 29.
Baronetcy, 45.
Poldhullie, 12, 42.
Population, Decline of, 30. Plantations, Formation of, 38.
Redfold, 55.
Religious Services in Tillyduke and Knocklea Schools, 35.
Rent Collections, 47, 48, 49. Rinstroin, 17.
Road at Newe diverted, 38. Road, Boltinstone-Deskry, 45. Roughpark, 44.
Servitudes of Moss, etc., 23.
Skellater, 12-15, 20, 21, 44, 47. Motto, 15.
Smith, William, the mason, 36. Smithston of Glencarvie, 18.
Squatters, 25.
Steevie’s Stone, 25.
Stewart, Alexander, of Edinglassie,
Stewart, Donald, 42.
Strathdon, Area of, 7.
Tablets in Strathdon Church, 34.
Tailor’s Cottage, The, 28.
Tennant, H. J., of Edinglassie, 21. Thesiger family, 20.
Tollohespick, 56.
Tolnaskinch, 56.
Tomachlewn, 16, 18.
Tomachon, 16.
Tomantaple, 16.
Tombis,” 51.
Tornahaish Hill, Cairn on, 45.
Tornashean, 12, 20, 32.
Towie, 7.
Veterinary Surgeon, The, 27.
Wallace of Candacraig, 20.
Motto and Family, 20.
Burial Place, 35-Wattie, Alexander, 18.
Whitesheal, 55-